The Inauguration of the Kingdom of God in Luke

The following is a paper written last December, for my New Testament class at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary. It is an exegesis of Luke 4:14-30.

  1. Introduction

The rejection of Jesus at Nazareth, and the invocation of Isaiah’s prophetic words, is a crucial, tone-setting moment early in Luke’s Gospel. A close reading and analysis of its parts can provide important context to the story of God’s salvific work that Luke is trying to tell. In order to better understand this passage, this paper will explore Luke’s use of Mark and Isaiah, and how he repurposed and shaped elements of both, to tell a story that is programmatic for the entire Luke-Acts story arc.

Ge_Christ_Synagogue_710Occurring in chapter four of the Gospel of Luke, this story is preceded by accounts of Jesus’ family before his birth, his miraculous conception, birth, infancy, and childhood. In chapter three, just prior to this, John proclaims the coming of Christ, Jesus is baptized and anointed by the Holy Spirit, and then tempted in the wilderness for forty days. He is just returning from that temptation to embark upon his Galilean mission, which he inaugurates in his hometown of Nazareth.

  1. Luke’s sources

2.1 Luke’s use of Mark in telling this story

Most Biblical scholars accept that Luke used the narrative of Mark, along with other sources, in crafting his own account of the life and ministry of Jesus. Thus, an analysis of how Luke makes use of Mark in this particular passage is useful. In comparing to Mark, one can see what themes Luke wishes to emphasize or diminish.

Luke appears to draw upon Mark 6:1-6 for this the passage, although it is clear Luke has greatly expanded the story. Additionally, the source of Luke’s inauguration of the Galilean mission in vv. 14-15 is debated amongst scholars. Bock summarizes scholarly opinion well: “Some discussion exists concerning the source of 4:14-15. Many explain the passage as a variation of Mark 1:14-15.” He goes on to detail some of the shaky arguments put forth by scholars to establish linkage, but his conclusion is convincing: “The question of sources is difficult to resolve, but it would seem that either an independent source has been used or Luke has supplied a summary that adequately captures the initial response to Jesus’ early ministry.” Bovon and Johnson both affirm this judgement.

The connection of vv. 16-30 with Mark 6:1-6, on the other hand, is well-established. Luke based his account of Jesus’ rejection at Nazareth on the Mark story, but added much to it, giving it a more prominent place in the picture he was painting of Jesus. The question is in what way Luke interacted with the Marcan text to compose his own story. Bock rounds up a variety of hypotheses among commentaries trying to answer this question. The account he accepts, however, is that “Luke knows Mark 6, but choose to use another source for this event.” In other words, the story from Mark is obviously known to Luke, as he is using a text of Mark in his composition, but that he chooses to use a different but similar story or stories to craft vv. 16-30. Mark is certainly a source for Luke, but clearly not the only one.

Bovon sees more dependency on Mark than Bock, writing, “Mark 6:1-6 lends the descriptive setting…” But that this section is “a redactional expansion of Mark 1:14-15.” Evans points out that this expansion is “obviously conflated,” that is, it is several pieces stitched together by Luke. This evidenced by the sometimes clumsy story-telling, such as the multiple reactions to Jesus by the congregation, as Evans, Bovon, and Bock all note.

While there are no doubt similarities in the Lukan and Marcan accounts, Luke chooses to move the account of Jesus’ rejection up considerably in his narrative. In Mark, this story comes after a previous preaching tour of Galilee that stretched across four chapters. Here in Luke, this story initiates Jesus’ ministry. This has a purpose. As Stein notes, Luke’s “orderly presentation of the things Jesus said and did was more important than chronological exactness.” In Luke, this story is “programmatic”, in that is announces “the purpose and content of his mission as the fulfilment of the promises of salvation.” This story is no longer just about Jesus’ rejection at home; it is now his “mission statement” of sorts, the opening declaration of his ministerial purpose.

Evans speculates that Luke had several accounts of Jesus being a regular synagogue preacher, but few or no accounts of the content of that preaching. Thus, he writes one such story, possibly combining several accounts (including Mark) to do so. “And where better than at the opening of the ministry?” As a result, this story – Jesus reading at synagogue in Nazareth, declaring his own fulfillment of the words, and being rejected by the local Jewish population – sets a thematic tone for the rest of Luke’s Gospel. It is impossible to be sure which sources he did bring in along with Mark, whether it was the infamous Q document, a source unique to his situation (“L”) or oral traditions. Whatever the source, Luke clearly used his editorial discretion here by using more than one tradition to create a story that serves a specific purpose in his telling of Jesus’ story.

2.2 The scripture quotation from Isaiah

In making this story Jesus’ programmatic statement of ministry, Luke uses a paraphrase of the Septuagint’s Greek translation of Isaiah 61 and 58. The mashing together of different Isaiah quotes, along with the use of the Greek translation as opposed to Hebrew or Aramaic, indicates that this is a construction of Luke, rather than a historical account. “After all,” Ringe says, “no one would have been following Jesus around like a modern press corps on the trail of a political candidate, taking notes on his speech and the crowd’s response.”

Most the Isaiah quote is drawn from chapter 61:1-2 and, most likely, 58:6, with various restatements and omissions from the original. In Luke’s telling, there are five things Jesus claims to have been “anointed” to do: (1) “bring good news to the poor”, (2) “proclaim release to the captives”, (3) “recovery of sight to the blind”, (4) “to let the oppressed go free”, and (5) “to proclaim the year of the Lord’s favor” (Luke 4:18-19, NRSV). Statement 4 is not in the original selection from Isaiah 61, replacing “to bind up the brokenhearted” (Isaiah 61:1, NRSV). It is unclear why Luke replaced the original phrase here. Bovon indicates that there are multiple, unconvincing explanations, but seems to settle on a technique of reading the prophets called haphtara, which draws links on passages that share words (which 61:2 and 58:6 do.)

Additionally, the phrase “recovery of sight to the blind” is an alteration of the original Hebrew version of Isaiah 58:6. Whereas the original refers to “the exchange of the darkness of prison for the light of day,” the LXX text takes that figure of speech literally (i.e. as light coming to the eyes of the formerly blind, rather than the light of freedom to those imprisoned.)

Luke also omits “and the day of the vengeance of our God” at the end of verse 19. Scholars indicate this omission serves Luke’s vision of the coming Kingdom of God. The original Isaiah verse is alluding to the Jubilee year ordained in Leviticus 25. A vision emphasizing salvation and grace is Luke’s mission here, not one focused on judgment. As Gonzalez says, “The text from Isaiah is one of comfort and hope. As applied to Jesus, it means that his mission is to bring good news…” Words of judgement and condemnation, obviously, don’t bring much comfort and hope.

  1. The key concepts of Isaiah 61 as quoted in Luke 4:

3.1 “anointing”

One of the chief arguments amongst scholars about this passage is the theological meaning of the word “anointing” in verse 18. Applied to Jesus, the reader would make the connection to the baptism as the anointing event, which had just occurred at the end of chapter 3. But what did that anointing mean? The question comes down to whether Luke intends to mean Jesus has been anointed as a prophet, or as the messiah, by reference to this verse. The interpretation one chooses colors how one sees Jesus in relation to his mission. Is he a continuation of the prophetic tradition, or is he the Messiah?

Fitzmyer provides the strongest case for a prophetic anointing. Jesus, by quoting Isaiah (and later referencing Elijah and Elisha), is put in the line of prophets that Isaiah was a part of. “This passage certainly contains no reference to a Davidic dynasty or a royal function of Jesus…his anointing…is not that of the political, kingly sort.” Fitzmyer sees connections here to the prophetic tradition; the lack of overt kingly language is interpreted as intentional and meaningful.

Several others, on the other hand, believe this is a messianic anointing. Johnson sees the Greek verb used here, chrio, to hold a Messianic meaning because of its close relation to Christos, the Greek word often translated as Messiah. As a result, Johnson regards “Luke’s notion of Messiah as quite literal.” Ringe also references the use of the Greek verb as proof.

The most convincing arguments, however, are for an understanding of “anointing” as indicating both prophetic and messianic connotations. Stein frames it well: “The anointing was not just a prophetic anointing, but a messianic one as well, for Jesus was the bringer, not just the herald, of salvation.” Both strands are present in Jesus, so the understanding one can draw from Jesus’ anointing is all-encompassing.

Bock critiques Fitzmyer’s limited view of the anointing referenced in verse 18. Regarding this reading, he writes, “If one reads the passage without consideration of the larger Lucan literary context, then such a position could be defended.” He goes on: “The infancy narrative, the baptism, and the following section (4:38-41) all strongly emphasize Jesus as the anointed Son and proclaimer of the kingdom.” It is unlikely Luke would intend a limited reading of Isaiah here, when he tries throughout the Luke-Acts narrative to establish Jesus as the fulfilment of Jewish expectations of the Messiah, and of the prophetic cry for justice throughout the ages. Understanding “anointed” to hold both prophetic and messianic connotations makes the most sense in this context.

3.2 “preach good news”

After declaring himself the anointed, Jesus continues in his reading by declaring that he has come to “preach the good news.” The Greek word used her is euangelizomai. Evans points out that this verb is related to the noun euangelion, from which we derive “the Good News” or the “Gospel.” Literally, it means “to announce good tidings.”

Both Fitzmyer and Bock caution against loading the word with too much Christian subtext, however. It is used here in the Isaiah quote, and so still carries a prophetic meaning. “The prophetic function of Jesus’ mission is thus set forth in Deutero-Isaian terms…In the OT it scarcely means the preaching of Jesus or Christian preaching; when put on his lips here, it is not to be assumed that it immediately takes on the full Christian connotation.” Bock adds, “The prophetic role fits nicely with Luke’s emphasis on Jesus as prophet or teacher…(euangelizomai)…puts a note of continuity between Jesus and his forerunner (Isaiah).  

With these cautions in mind, however, based on our analysis of the nature of Jesus’ anointing, it is not outside the realm of reasonableness to acknowledge that Luke is repurposing Isaiah’s term here to add more depth of meaning. Evans points out that Luke uses the term 15 times in Luke-Acts, and has a wide spread of meanings throughout. Luke clearly shows the inclination to make the term his own, and his emphasis on Jesus as salvation certainly brings this usage into inauguratory action here.

3.3 “the poor” and others mentioned in v. 18

The Isaiah quote lists for groups of people that the anointed has come to provide some form of liberation to: the poor, captives, the blind, and the oppressed. The question here is whether these are to be understood as those who are materially poor, physically imprisoned and blind, and politically or socially oppressed, or are these spiritualized terms?

Stein and Bock, especially, propose a “spiritualist” understanding of Jesus’ proclamation. Bock refers to the Greek word for poor here – ptochoi – as a “‘soteriological generalization’ – that is, it refers to those who most often responded to Jesus…and in an invitation context it refers to those who are open to God.” While acknowledging that there are material elements to the poverty Luke references, Bock and Stein believe “the poor” primarily references spiritual deficiencies and needs.

Evans provides a strong counterargument. He first acknowledges that, in the prophets and the Psalms, the use of ptochoi also has connotations of “humble or meek.” However, this term is used often by Luke, and “in all other instances in Luke…it denotes literal poverty.”

Green provides a strong “middle way” between primarily spiritual and primarily material arguments that is quite convincing. “It is thus evident that Jesus mission is directed to the poor-defined not merely in subjective, spiritual or personal economic terms, but in the holistic sense of those who are for any of a number of reasons relegated to positions outside the boundaries of God’s people.” Green spreads this understanding to all four terms here. A holistic understanding of these four terms in reference to the hearers of the Good News allows them to retain a material power, while also bringing in those who may not be materially deficient, but who are spiritually impoverished by their oppression of others.

3.4 the meaning of vv 18–19 as a whole in their context

The use of this Isaiah passage as a whole has strong undertones of the Jewish legal idea of a “Jubilee” year. Bock describes the Jubilee as “interpreted in Judaism as a reference to the dawn of God’s new age.”

It is unlikely that Jesus, in making this reference, was demanding a literal Jubilee year, as laid out in the Law of Moses. Rather, Jubilee likely had a salvific connotation. Gonzalez writes, “There is some debate as to the degree, manner and frequency with which Israel observed the Year of the Jubilee; but there is no doubt that by the first century it had come to be interpreted as an eschatological promise. It is in this sense that we should interpret Jesus’ use of the passage: in him, the fulfillment of the ancient promises has come.” Understanding Jubilee in this way helps explain Jesus’ subsequent claim that “Today this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing” (Luke 4:21, NRSV). If Jesus is the initiator and agent of God’s Kingdom, then the eschatological hope the Jewish people had for God’s great Jubilee is present in him.

  1. The response of the people and Jesus’ interaction with them

Up to this point, we have explored the details of Luke’s use of Isaiah to understand what Jesus was saying about himself at the outset of his evangelizing mission. First, Jesus is the Anointed one, in both a prophetic sense and a messianic sense; he is both the herald and moment of salvation. Next, he is announcing good tidings, not just prophetically, but soteriologically. His Good News is liberation, for all people, both oppressed and oppressor. In this Good News is the fulfilment of the eschatological hope of his hearers, their desire for God’s liberating action in the world. So how does this understanding explain the dual reactions of the congregation to Jesus, first in amazement and then in murderous rage?

It is important to remember that this passage is likely a conflation of several sources, and the two fundamentally different reactions by the crowd here may reflect that. If this is the case, then as Fitzmyer notes, “the climactic buildup of reactions to Jesus reveals a certain artistry in the Lucan story.” As he and several others note, however, literary seams are evident throughout the rest of the passage. This appears to be a case of Luke “making lemonade from lemons,” in that he had lots of material he thought important to use in making his point, and the stitching together was a difficult but necessary process.

Initially, the crowd reacts positively to “the message’s rhetorical power and hopeful character.” They also ask questions of his lineage, aware that he is purportedly the son of Joseph, the local carpenter. How could the son of a lowly artisan be the fulfillment of Jewish prophetic and eschatological hope? Notice that the crowd is not angered by any blasphemy at this point; the words of Jesus may be ponderous, but no one is overly concerned by them.

Jesus then goes into a short parable, about prophets being rejected in their own homes. He ties this to stories of the prophets Elijah and Elisha, who performed great works not for their own Jewish brothers and sisters, but instead for Gentiles. Stein points out, “For Luke these examples showed that the Jewish people had no exclusivistic claims on Jesus.” This is where the problem arises. The universal nature of Jesus’ mission is not accepted by those who feel they are in the “in crowd.” Their acknowledgment of him being a local boy by noting who is father is probably carries some connotation of favor on their part. Their anger, then, becomes understandable. “The ensuing wrath of the townspeople is thus a fulfillment of the warning that God’s faithfulness always includes God’s freedom to make good on God’s promises in unexpected – even unwanted – ways.” Yet, their wrath is their own downfall. Green writes, “…their inhibiting vision of who he is and what he is to accomplish – stands as a primary obstacle to their receiving through him God’s favor.”

  1. The relation of the story to the concept of the kingdom of God message in Luke

This story is important in the cycle of Luke-Acts. It stands not just as the initiation of Jesus’ mission, but of the mission of the church carried on by the disciples and apostles. As such, it conveys three of Luke’s most important themes: (1) the universality of Jesus’ salvific effect beyond just Jewish people, (2) a concern for social injustice and the Good News’ breaking into the world in the here and now to address them, and (3) Jesus’ rejection by his own people, culminating in Crucixion. As Bock summarizes so well, “In one pericope Jesus’ ministry is outlined.”

And so, the shape of God’s Kingdom that Luke imagines is outlined as well. It is a universal kingdom, not a Jewish one, concerned with a salvation predicated not just on saving souls, but breaking down oppression, and it is not a popular Kingdom, but a subversive one, destined to be misunderstood and misidentified by those who consider themselves to be in the best position to recognize it. Luke deftly weaves together several traditions here in a powerful and memorable way that sets a tone for the remainder of the Luke-Acts cycle.

 

Bibliography

Bock, Darrell L. Luke, Volume 1: 1:1-9:50. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament 3A. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1994.

Bovon, Francois. Luke 1: A Commentary on the Gospel of Luke 1:1-9:50. Hermeneia: A Critical and Historical Commentary on the Bible. Translated by Christine M. Thomas. Edited by Helmut Koester. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2002.

Crossan, John Dominic. The Historical Jesus: The Life of a Mediterranean Jewish Peasant. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1991.

Ehrman, Bart D. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. 6th Ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.

Evans, C.F. Saint Luke. 2nd Ed. London: SCM Press, 2008.

Fitzmyer, Jospeh A, S.J. The Gospel According to Luke (I-IX). The Anchor Bible 28. Garden City: Doubleday and Company, Inc, 1981.

Gonzalez, Justo L. Luke. Belief: A Theological Commentary on the New Testament. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 2010.

Green, Joel B. The Gospel of Luke. The New International Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1997.

Johnson, Luke Timothy. The Gospel of Luke. Sacra Pagina Series 3. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1991.

Nolland, John. Luke 1-9:20. World Biblical Commentary 35A. Dallas: Word Books, 1989.

Ringe, Sharon H. Luke. Westminster Bible Companion. Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1995.

Stein, Robert H. Luke. The New American Commentary 24. Nashville: B&H Publishing Group, 1992.

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My Favorite Bible Stories, Part 2: The God of my Enemies

jonahvtI don’t have a specific verse or set of verses today. Instead, I commend to you the entire book of Jonah.

Jonah is one of my favorite stories in the Bible. We all know it, heard it growing up. I am particularly fond of the Veggie Tales film Jonah. Those are some catchy songs.

But it’s what comes at the end of Jonah that I love. After being called by God and running, after being thrown overboard and swallowed by a fish and spit out on dry land, after a long and arduous journey across the desert of Syria to the enemy city of Nineveh, Jonah delivers his message to the Assyrians: repent, or perish at the hand of Israel’s God.

Message successfully delivered, Jonah leaves Nineveh, and camps out on a nearby hill to watch God rain down holy fire on the unrepentant barbarians. Why shouldn’t he enjoy a good show and well-deserved comeuppance for his enemies after everything he’s been through? And what a satisfying show it will be! Nineveh, after all, is the capitol of Assyria, Israel’s worst enemy, who had threatened them and attacked them and made their lives generally miserable. Finally, Jonah thought, justice will be served! God will save God’s people, by killing these others!

Only, it never happens. The king of Nineveh repents, and decrees a fast in the whole city, in order to appease God and avert destruction. God relents. The people of Nineveh, God’s very own children, are saved.

Jonah is pissed. Not only because Nineveh was saved, but because he knew this would happen. “Is not this what I said while I was still in my own country? That is why I fled to Tarshish at the beginning; for I knew that you are a gracious God and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love, and ready to relent from punishing.” Jonah knew God would spare Israel’s greatest enemy, and he can’t stand it. He wanted justice. He wanted the very people who plagued Israel, who destroyed their land, to be wiped from the earth.

And instead, he got a God of mercy, and compassion, and love. He got a God who is not just his God, not just his people’s God, not merely a divine strongman protecting just the Israelites. He got a God of all people. A God who protects God’s own, be they Israeli or Assyrian or Greek or Roman.

I love this story, because it reminds me today that God is the God of America, of Christians, of the West. God is the God of all. God does not support our side against theirs. God does not ride into battle with us, to protect us and avenge us. God instead stands with all of humanity, on both sides, no matter the wrongs committed by either side. God’s justice is bigger than our justice. God’s mercy is more bountiful than our mercy. Indeed, “a gracious God and merciful, slow to anger, and abounding in steadfast love, and ready to relent from punishing.”

Jonah reminds me that, when my country gets into a war fever, or descends into tribalism, that God does not condone such things. God loves all of humanity, be they American, Israeli, British, Palestinian, Iranian, Mexican, Chinese, Russian, French – all of us.

And if we expect God to vanquish our enemies, well, we will be very surprised to find that our God is not just our God, but is the God of our enemies as well.

My Favorite Bible Stories

Everybody has a favorites Bible verse or story. Or, at least we all did when we were kids in Sunday school. Growing up, I always liked the story of David and Goliath. I’d like to say that I did because of the whole “little guy versus big guy” morality play at work there, but honestly, I think I liked it because it was the most violent story in the children’s Bible, and I was a typical little boy.

MFBS - InstagramAs I’ve grown older, I’ve given very little thought to the idea of a “favorite” Bible verse. I certainly enjoy the Bible, and get a lot of meaning from it. I revere it as the container of the tradition of God that I find myself part of. But picking favorites hasn’t been high on my list.

I think this is true for a lot of other people, too, at least at a meaningful level. What I mean is, I don’t think most Christians put a lot of conscious effort into thinking about what parts of the Bible they really like, and why. I think for a lot, the default answer becomes “john 3:16” or something equally vapid and typical.

In this series, I want to explore the stories and verses in the Bible that come up most often when I am thinking and writing about my faith. These are the things that have really stuck with me, the verses and stories that I would choose out if someone who wasn’t familiar with Biblical Christianity asked me for a handful of verses as a starting point. I’m not going to tackle them in some hierarchical or ordered way; instead, I will take them in the order they come in the Bible (with one exception.)

Throughout this series, I hope you will think about the same thing: what are your truly favorite parts of the Bible, and why? Please share in the comments what you come up with; I’m curious to see what people say!

And starting tomorrow: Genesis 18:16-33.